Research Findings

 

Reports from the Center of Inquiry

Lessons from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, by Ernest T. Pascarella and Charles Blaich

In this article published in Change: the Magazine of Higher Learning in March 2013, Pascarella and Blaich write about how the Wabash National Study was conducted; and they examine the findings to date, in particular, the impact of good teaching, deep learning, diversity experiences, study abroad, and Greek affiliation.  

From Gathering to Using Assessment Results: Lessons from the Wabash National Study, by Charles F. Blaich & Kathleen S. Wise.

Published by the National Institute of Learning Outcomes Assessment in January 2011, this article discusses the challenges that Wabash National Study participating institutions have faced in identifying and implementing changes in response to the data. The article identifies five practical steps that campuses should consider implementing as they develop assessment projects to increase the likelihood that the evidence they collect will benefit student learning.

Summary of Four-Year Change (PDF)

Summary of data from 2,200 students at 17 four-year colleges and universities in the 2006 cohort of the Wabash National Study. Students completed an array of surveys and tests at three points during their college education—when they first arrived on campus, at the end of their first year, and at the end of their fourth year.

High-Impact Practices and Experiences from the Wabash National Study (PDF)

In our research thus far, we have found that four broad categories of teaching practices and institutional conditions predict growth on a wide variety of student outcomes including leadership, openness to diversity and challenge, political and social involvement, and positive attitude toward literacy. These categories of high-impact teaching practices and institutional conditions were derived from Wabash National Study questions in the Student Experiences Survey and the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). In this document, we provide more detail on the types of high-impact experiences in these four categories. We believe that we can improve the impact of our institutions by helping students experience more of these good teaching practices and supportive institutional conditions.

Overview of Findings from the First Year of the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (PDF)

In our analysis of data from 3,081 students at 19 institutions in the first round of the study we found that, on the whole, students changed very little on the outcomes that we measured over their first year in college. Despite the fact that students generally did not change much, we also identified a set of teaching practices and conditions that predict student growth on a wide variety of outcomes. This would seem to suggest that across the institutions in the study, these effective teaching practices and institutional conditions are not prevalent enough to produce widespread change. Indeed, the data from the first year of the study indicate that most of our students are only experiencing moderate levels of these important practices and conditions. Thus, one possible way to improve student growth on the outcomes is to expand the degree to which students encounter these supportive conditions and practices.

 


 

Wabash National Study Publications, Papers, and Presentation Slides

Andersen, C., & Dorminy, J. L. (2012, February). Using the foundations of excellence process: Results of the Wabash National Study and institutional assessment to keep students on the path to graduation. Poster session presented at the Annual Conference on the First-Year Experience, San Antonio, TX.

Barber, J. P. (2008, November). Constructing connections: A qualitative study of integration of learning among first-year college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Barber, J. P. (2009). Integration of Learning: Meaning making for undergraduates through connection, application, and synthesis. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor). (UMI No. 3354010)

Barber, J. P. (2011, November). Linking narratives: A longitudinal case study approach to investigating integration of learning among college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Charlotte, NC.

Barber, J. P. (2012). Integration of learning: A grounded theory analysis of college students' learning. American Educational Research Journal, 49, 590–617. Available through a subscription to Sage online >>

Barber, J. P., DeGraw, J. E., Jiang, C., & King, P. M. (2006, November). Learning through diverse interactions: Perspectives on religion and politics. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Anaheim, CA.

Barber, J. P., & King, P. M. (2007, November). Experiences that promote self-authorship: An analysis of the "demands" of developmentally effective experiences. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY.

Barber, J. P., King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2010, November). Progress on the journey toward self-authorship: Larger than average developmental gains among college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Indianapolis, IN.

Barber, J. P. King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2013). Long strides on the journey toward self-authorship: substantial developmental shifts in college students’ meaning making. Journal of Higher Education, 84, 866–896. Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>

Barber, J. P., & Walczak, K. K. (2009, April). Conscience and critic: Peer debriefing strategies in grounded theory research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA. 

Barnhardt, C., Lindsay, N. K., & King, P. M. (2006, November). A mixed-method analysis of integration among learning among college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Anaheim, CA.

Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2007). Self-authorship: The foundation for twenty-first-century education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 109, 69–83.

Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2009). The activity of meaning making: A holistic perspective on college student development. Journal of College Student Development, 50, 621–639. (This article can be accessed through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Baxter Magolda, M. B., & King, P. M. (2007). Interview strategies for assessing self-authorship: Constructing conversations to assess meaning making. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 491–508. (This article can be accessed through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Baxter Magolda, M. B., & King, P. M. (2008). Toward reflective conversations: An advising approach that promotes self-authorship. Peer Review, 10, 8–11. >>

Baxter Magolda, M. B., King, P. M., Drobney, K. L. (2010). Practices that provide effective academic challenge for first-year students. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 21(2), 45–65. (see journal website>>)

Baxter Magolda, M. B., King, P. M., Stephenson, E., Kendall Brown, M., Lindsay, N. K., Barber, J. P., et al. (2007, April). Developmentally effective experiences for promoting self-authorship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Baxter Magolda, M. B., King, P. M., Taylor, K., & Perez, R. J. (2008, November). Developmental steps within external meaning making. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Baxter Magolda, M. B., King, P. M., Taylor, K., & Wakefield, K. (2010, November). Mapping developmental patterns toward self-authorship. Paper presented at the the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Indianapolis, IN.

Baxter Magolda, M. B., King, P. M., Taylor, K. B., & Wakefield, K. M. (2012). Decreasing authority dependence during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 53, 418–435. (This article can be accessed through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Blaich, C. (2011, November). IR and accreditation: Leveraging for sustainable assessment. Presentation conducted at the joint post-conference workshop of the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC) and the Northeast Association for Institutional Research (NEAIR), Boston, MA. >>

Blaich, C.  (2012, November). Lessons from the Wabash National Study about creating and assessing effective first-year programs. Keynote address given at the Assessment Institute in Indianapolis, IN.

Blaich, C. F. (2008, April). The impact of teaching and institutional conditions on student learning. Slides presented at the conference of the Network for Academic Renewal, Association of American Colleges and Universities, Austin, TX. 

Blaich, C. F. (2009, May/June). Research findings for deepening learning: An ode to high-impact practices. Slides presented at the closing plenary of the AAC&U Institute on General Education and Assessment, Minneapolis, MN. >> (PDF)

Blaich, C. F. (2010, January). Assessing student learning: Lessons learned from the Wabash National Study. In Susan Elrod (Facilitator), A kaleidoscope of perspectives on student learning goalsSTEM & beyond. Session conducted at the annual meeting of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC. See presentation slides >> (PDF)

Blaich, C. F. (2010, January). Wabash National Study—Taking seriously the perspectives of others. In Caryn McTighe Musil (Moderator), What do we know about education for personal and social responsibility? Findings from a national research collaborative. Session conducted at the annual meeting of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC. See presentation slides >> (PDF)

Blaich, C. F., & Seifert, T. A. (2009, October). Validation of NSSE with liberal arts outcomes: Findings from the first year of the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education. Slides presented at the NSSE 10th Anniversary Symposium, Indianapolis, IN. >>

Blaich, C. F., & Weisler, S. (2009, January). From data to action: Interpreting complex student learning data and creating data-driven plans to improve student learning. Slides presented at the pre-meeting workshop of the American Association of Colleges and Universities annual meeting, Seattle, WA. >>

Blaich, C. F., & Wise, K. S. (2009). Hampshire and Wabash assessment collaboratives review. Unpublished report, Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts at Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. >> (PDF)

Blaich, C. F., & Wise, K. S. (2010). Moving from assessment to institutional improvement. In T. A. Seifert, (Ed.). New Directions in Institutional Research: Longitudinal Assessment for Institutional Improvement, 2010(s2), 67–78. (see publisher website)

Blaich, C. F., & Wise, K. S. (2011, April). The Wabash National Study: The impact of teaching practices and institutional conditions on student growth. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. See presentation (PDF) and paper (PDF).

Blaich, C. F., & Wise, K. S. (2011). From gathering to using assessment results: Lessons from the Wabash National Study. (NILOA Occasional Paper No. 8). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois and Indiana University, National Institute of Learning Outcomes Assessment. >> (PDF)

Blaich, C. F., Wise, K. S., & Butler, D. A. (2008, April). Engaging institutions in improving student learning through a national study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Higher Learning Commission, Chicago, IL. >> (PDF)

Blaich, C. F., Wise, K. S., Weisler, S., & Harrell, A. (2008, October). Using institutional evidence of effective practices and conditions to improve student learning outcomes. Slides presented at the conference of the Network for Academic Renewal, Association of American Colleges and Universities, Long Beach, CA. >> (PDF)

Borst, A. J. (2011). Evaluating academic and student affairs partnerships: the impact of living-learning communities on the development of critical thinking in college freshman (Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, 2011). Available at Iowa Research Online: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/927

Bost, A. (2007, Fall). The Need for Cognition Scale. Assessment Notes. >>

Bowman, N. A. (2007, November). The development of psychological well-being among college students from working-class and middle-class backgrounds. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY. 

Bowman, N. A. (2008, November). Can first-year college students accurately report their learning and development? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL. 

Bowman, N. A. (2008). Toward a cultural psychological perspective on social class in the United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. >>

Bowman, N. A. (2009). College diversity courses and cognitive development among students from privileged and marginalized groups. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2, 182194.

Bowman, N. A. (2010). Assessing learning and development among diverse college students. In S. Herzog (Ed.), New Directions for Institutional Research. Diversity and educational benefits: Expanding the scope, deepening our understanding, 2010(145), 53–71. (See publisher website)

Bowman, N. A. (2010). Can first-year college students accurately report their learning and development? American Educational Research Journal, 47, 466–496. (Available through a subscription to SAGE Journals Online >>)

Bowman, N. A. (2010). Development of psychological well-being among first-year students. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 180–200. (This article can be accessed through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Bowman, N. A. (2010). Disequilibrium and resolution: The nonlinear effects of diversity courses on well-being and orientations toward diversity. Review of Higher Education, 33, 543–568. (This article can be accessed through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Bowman, N. A. (2011). Examining systematic errors in predictors of college student self-reported gains. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2011(150), 7–19. See journal website>>

Bowman, N. A. (2011). Validity of college self-reported gains at diverse institutions. Educational Researcher, 40(1), 22–24. >>

Bowman, N. A. (2011, April). The validity of college seniors’ self-reported gains as a proxy for longitudinal growth. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Bowman, N. A. (2011, November). Promoting Sustained Engagement with Diversity: The Reciprocal Relationships Between Informal and Formal College Diversity Experiences. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Charlotte, NC.

Bowman, N. A., & Seifert, T. A. (2011). Can college students accurately assess what affects their learning and development? Journal of College Student Development, 52, 270–290. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Bowman, N.A. (2012). Promoting sustained engagement with diversity: The reciprocal relationships between formal and informal college diversity experiences. Review of Higher Education, 36, 1–24. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>.)

Christman, H. (2013, November). Connections between leadership and developmental capacities in college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Christman, H. (2013, November). A longitudinal understanding of the Social Change Model in college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Christman, H., & Goodman, K. (2011, November). The impact of classroom practices on college students' socially responsible leadership. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Study of Higher Education, Charlotte, NC.

Cole, J. S., & Korkmaz, A. (2013). First-year students’ psychological well-being and need for cognition: Are they important predictors of academic engagement? Journal of College Student Development, 54, 557–569. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE>>)

DeGraw, J. E., Barber, J. P., & King, P. M. (2007, April). How diversity experiences contribute to deeper understanding of difference: A mixed methods study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Drobney, K. (2012, November). Decision-making processes & developmental capacities of high-risk college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

Foresman, G., Hornsby, K., Brown, M., Millington, P., & Blaich, C. (2011, January). Engaging student voices in institutional inquiry and assessment. Presentation conducted at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges and Universities, San Francisco, CA. See presentation slides >> (PDF)

Gillig, B. (2013, November). Student learning at community colleges and four-year Institutions: A comparison. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Gillig, B., & Roksa, J. (2013, November). Predicting change in academic motivation: Academic and social factors. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Goodman, K. M. (2009, November). Does diversity impact all students equally? A critical quantitative analysis of the effects of diversity, race, and class on first-year students' need for cognition. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Goodman, K. M. (2011). The influence of the campus climate for diversity on college students' need for cognition. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Iowa. >>

Goodman, K. M., Baxter Magolda, M., Seifert, T. A., & King, P. M. (2011). Good practices for student learning: Mixed-method evidence from the Wabash National Study. About Campus, 16(1), 2–9. 

Goodman, K. M., & Jorgensen J. (2008, February). An update and replication: How do race and socioeconomic background influence experiences of liberal education and good practices in undergraduate education? Poster presented at the University of Iowa, College of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr. Research Symposium, Iowa City, IA.

Goodman, K.M., Jorgensen, J., Laskowski, J., Seifert, T. A., & Blaich, C. F. (2007, January). How do race and socioeconomic background influence experiences of good practices in undergraduate education? Slides presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of College and Universities, New Orleans, LA. >> PDF

Goodman, K. M., Martin, G. L., Reams, A. A., & Pascarella, E. T. (2008, November). New evidence on the link between alcohol use and college outcomes. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL. >>

Goodman, K. M., & Pascarella, E. T. (2007, November). College student binge drinking and academic achievement: A longitudinal replication and extension. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY.

Goodman, K. M., & Salisbury, M. H. (2008, October). High-impact educational activities: Do they promote intercultural effectiveness? Poster session presented at the conference of the Network for Academic Renewal, Association of American Colleges and Universities, Long Beach, CA.

Goodman, K. M., & Salisbury, M. H. (2009, April). Activities and practices that affect intercultural effectiveness. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Goodman, K. M., Seifert, T. A., Jorgensen, J. D., Pascarella, E. T., Wolniak, G. C., Blaich, C. F., et al. (2006, November). How do race and socioeconomic background influence experiences of good practices in undergraduate education? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Anaheim, CA. >>

Hanson, J. M., Trolian, T. L., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2012, November). Evaluating the influence of peer learning on psychological well-being. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

Hanson, J. M., Weeden, D. D., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. (2011, November). Do liberal arts colleges make students more liberal? Paper presented at roundtable session at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Charlotte, NC.

Hanson, J. M., Weeden, D. D., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. (2012). Do liberal arts colleges make students more liberal? Some initial evidence. Higher Education, 64, 355369. See Springerlink>>

Hevel, M., & Martin, G. (2013, November). Do fraternities and sororities still enhance socially responsible leadership? Evidence from the fourth year of college. Paper presented at at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Hu, S., & McCormick, A. C. (2011, May). Exploring the utility of an engagement-based student typology in studying college outcomes. Paper presented at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Toronto, Ontario.

Hu, S., & McCormick, A. C. (November). An engagement-based student typology and its relationship to college outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 53, 738–754. Available on Springerlink>>

Hu, S., McCormick, A. C., & Gonyea, R. M. (2011, May). Examining the relationship between student learning and persistence. Paper presented at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Tornoto, Ontario.

Hu, S., McCormick, A. C., & Gonyea, R. M. (2012). Examining the relationship between student learning and persistence. Innovative Higher Education, 37, 387–395. Available on Springerlink>>

Huntrods, C., Richter, M. A., & Weeden, D. (2013, November). Effects of athletic participation on moral reasoning development. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Jiang, X., & Kendall Brown, M. (2008, November). Learning through cross-cultural interactions: A developmental perspective on US and international students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Kendall Brown, M. (2007, November). College diversity experiences that promote intercultural development. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY.

Kendall Brown, M. (2008). A mixed methods examination of college students' intercultural development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Kilgo, C. A., Sheets, J. E., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013, November). Do high-impact practices actually have high-impact on student learning? Some initial findings. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO. >>

Kilgo, C. A., Sheets, J. E., Pasquesi, K., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013, November). The estimated effects of participation in service learning on liberal arts outcomes. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO. >>

King, P. M. (2007). Inviting college students to reflect on their collegiate experiences. Paper presented at the Westmont College, Gaede Institute on the Liberal Arts seventh annual Conversation on the Liberal Arts. Retrieved July 24, 2009, from the Westmont College, Gaede Institute Web site: http://www.westmont.edu/institute/conversations/2007_program/pdfs/King.pdf

King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2007, November). Experiences that promote self-authorship among students of color: Understanding and negotiating multiple perspectives. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY.

King, P. M., Baxter Magolda, M. B., Barber, J. P., Kendall Brown, M., & Lindsay, N. K. (2009). Developmentally effective experiences for promoting self-authorship. Mind, Brain, and Education, 3, 108118.

King, P. M., Baxter Magolda, M. B., Barber, J. P., Perez, R. J., & Taylor, K. B. (2012, November). Researcher learning about assessing student development: Lessons from the Wabash National Study. Symposium conducted at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

King, P. M., Baxter Magolda, M. B., & Masse, J. (2008, October). And now what? Effects of initial interactions with diverse peers. Presentation at the conference of the Network for Academic Renewal, Association of American Colleges and Universities, Long Beach, CA. >> (PDF)

King, P. M., Kendall Brown, M., Lindsay, N. K., & VanHecke, J. R. (2007). Liberal arts student learning outcomes: An integrated approach. About Campus, 12(4), 2–9.

King, P. M., Perez, R. J., & Shim, W. (2010, November). Exploring college students intercultural experiences. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Indianapolis, IN.

King, P. M., & VanHecke, J. R. (2006). Making connections: Using skill theory to recognize how students build and rebuild understanding. About Campus, 16(1), 10–16.

Lijana, K. C. & Singh-Siddiqui, R. (2009, November). The effect of student engagement and student work on the psychological well-being of first-year college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Lindsay, N. K. (2007). Enhancing perpetual learning: The nexus between a liberal arts education and the disposition toward lifelong learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Lindsay, N. K. (2008, November). Enhancing perpetual learning: The nexus between a liberal arts education and the disposition toward lifelong learning. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Lindsay, N. K., Barnhardt, C., DeGraw, J. E., King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2007, April). How college students interpret moral experiences: A mixed methods study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Loes, C. (2009). The impact of college residence and diversity experiences on the development of critical thinking in first-year college students (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3373919)

Loes, C., Pascarella, E., & Umbach, P. (2009, November). Effects of diversity experiences on critical thinking skills: Who benefits? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Loes, C., Pascarella, E., & Umbach, P. (2012). Effects of diversity experiences on critical thinking skills: Who benefits? Journal of Higher Education, 83, 1–25. Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>

Loes, C. N. (2012, April). The impact of college residence and diversity experiences on the development of critical thinking in first-year college students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, BC.

Loes, C. N., Saichaie, K., Padgett, R. D., Pascarella, E. T. (2012). The effects of teacher behaviors on students' inclination to inquire and lifelong learning. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 6(2), 1–20. >>

Loes. C. N., & Salisbury, M. H. (2013, November). Does race moderate the cognitive impacts of good teaching? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Higher Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Loes, C. N., Salisbury, M. H., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013). Diversity experiences and attitudes toward literacy: Is there a link? Journal of Higher Education, 84, 834–865. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE>>)

Martin, G. L. (2011, November). Measuring the impact of student interaction with student affairs professionals on socially responsible leadership development in the first year of college. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Charlotte, NC.

Martin, G. L., & Blechschmidt, S. (2012, November). The impact of being a resident assistant on intercultural effectiveness and socially responsible leadership development during college. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

Martin, G. L., Hevel, M. S., & Asel, A. M. (2008, November). New evidence on the effects of fraternity and sorority affiliation: It's more complicated than you might think. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL. 

Martin, G. L., Hevel, M. S., Asel, A. M., & Pascarella, E. T. (2011). New evidence on the effects of fraternity and sorority affiliation during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 52, 543–559. Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>

Martin, G. L., Hevel, M. S., & Pascarella, E. T. (2012). Do fraternities and sororities enhance socially responsible leadership? The Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 49, 267–284. See De Gruyter website>>

Martin, G. L., & Hevel, M. S. (Eds.). (2014). Research-driven practice in student affairs: Implications from the Wabash Nationa Study of Liberal Arts Education. New Directions for Student Services, 147.

Martin, G. L., & Loes, C. N. (2010). What incentives can teach us about missing data in longitudinal assessment. In T. A. Seifert, (Ed.). New Directions in Institutional Research: Longitudinal Assessment for Institutional Improvement, 2010(s2), 67–78. (see publisher website)

Martin, G. L., & Parker, E. T. (2011, November). Do fraternities and sororities inhibit intercultural competence? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Charlotte, NC.

Martin, G. L., & Seifert, T. A. (2011). The relationship between students' interactions with student affairs professionals and cognitive outcomes in the first year of college. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 48, 389–410. >>

Mayhew, M. J. (2012). A multilevel examination of the influence of institutional type on the moral reasoning development of first-year students. Journal of Higher Education, 83, 367–388. Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>

Mayhew, M. J., Seifert, T. A., & Pascarella, E. T. (2008, November). A multi-institutional assessment of moral reasoning development among first-year students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Mayhew, M. J., Seifert, T. A., & Pascarella, E. T. (2009, April). Answering the call: How college impacts moral reasoning trajectories. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Mayhew, M. J., Seifert, T. A., & Pascarella, E. T. (2010). A multi-institutional assessment of moral reasoning development among first-year students. Review of Higher Education, 33, 357–390. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Mayhew, M. J., Seifert, T. A., & Pascarella, E. T. (2012). How the first year of college influences moral reasoning development for students in moral consolidation and moral transition. Journal of College Student Development, 53, 19–40. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>)

Mayhew, M. J., Seifert, T. A., Pascarella, E. T., Nelson Laird, T. F., & Blaich, C. F. (2012). Going deep into mechanisms for moral reasoning growth: How deep learning approaches affect moral reasoning development for first-year students. Research in Higher Education, 53(1), 26–46. (Available through SpringerLink, "Online First" >>)

Nelson Laird, T., Ribera, A., Wang, J., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013, November). How clear and organized classroom instruction and deep approaches to learning affect growth in critical thinking and need for cognition. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO. 

Nelson Laird, T. F., Seifert, T. A., & Pascarella, E. T., Mayhew, M. J., & Blaich, C. F. (2011, November). Deepening first-year students’ thinking: The effects of deep approaches to learning on three outcomes. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Charlotte, NC. >>

O'Neill, N. (2012). Promising practices for personal and social responsibility: Findings from a national research collaborative. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. >>

Padgett, R. D. (2011). The effects of the first year of college on undergraduates' development of altruistic and socially responsible behavior. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Iowa. >>

Padgett, R. D., Goodman, K. M., Johnson, M. P., Saichaie, K., & Umbach, P. D. (2008, November). The impact of college student socialization and socioeconomic status on cognitive outcomes. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Padgett, R. D., Goodman, K. M., Johnson, M. P., Saichaie, K., Umbach, P. D., & Pascarella, E. T. (2010). The impact of college student socialization, social class, and race on need for cognition. In S. Herzog (Ed.), New Directions for Institutional Research. Diversity and Educational Benefits: Expanding the Scope, Deepening Our Understanding, 2010(145), 99–111. (See publisher website)

Padgett, R. D., & Johnson, M. P. (2008, November). First-generation undergraduate students and the impacts of the first-year of college: Some additional evidence. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Padgett, R. D., Johnson, M. P., & Pascarella, E. T. (2012). First-generation undergraduate students and the impacts of the first year of college: Some additional evidence. Journal of College Student Development, 53, 243–256. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>.)

Padgett, R. D., Johnson, M. P., Saichaie, K., & Paulsen, M. B. (2009, November). The impact of physical health and good practices on psychological well-being. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Download slides.

Padgett, R. D., Keup, J. R., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013). The impact of first-year seminars on college students' life-long learning orientations. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50, 133–151. >>

Parker, E. T., & Pascarella, E. T. (2012, November). Effects of diversity experiences on socially responsible leadership over four years of college. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

Pascarella, E. T. (2012, March). Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS). Presentation given at the University of Iowa College of Education, Iowa City, IA.

Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. (2013). Lessons from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45(2), 6–15. See Change website >>

Pascarella, E. T., Blaich, C., Martin, G. L., & Hanson, J. M. (2011). How robust are the findings of academically adrift? Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 43(3). (See abstract)

Pascarella, E. T., & colleagues (2007). Methodological report for the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education. >> (PDF)

Pascarella, E. T., Goodman, K. M., Seifert, T. A., Tagliapietra-Nicoli, G., Park, S., & Whitt, E. J. (2007). College student binge drinking and academic achievement: A longitudinal replication and extension. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 715–727. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>.)

Pascarella, E. T., Martin, G. L., Hanson, J. M., Trolian, T. L., Gillig, B., & Blaich, C. (2014). Effects of diversity experiences on critical thinking skills over 4 years of college. Journal of College Student Development, 55, 86–92. (Available throuh a subscription to Project MUSE >>.)

Pascarella, E. T., Salisbury, M. H., & Blaich, C. (2009, November). Exposure to effective instruction and college student persistence: A multi-institutional replication and extension. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Pascarella, E. T., Salisbury, M. H., & Blaich, C. (2011). Exposure to effective instruction and college student persistence: A multi-institutional replication and extension. Journal of College Student Development, 52, 4–19. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>.)

Pascarella, E. T., Salisbury, M. H., Blaich, C. (2013). Design and analysis in college impact research: Which counts more? Journal of College Student Development, 54, 329–335. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>.)

Pascarella, E. T., Salisbury, M. H., Martin, G. L., & Blaich, C. (2012). Some complexities in the effects of diversity experiences on orientation toward social/political activism and political views in the first year of college. Journal of Higher Education, 83, 467–496. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>.)

Pascarella, E. T., Seifert, T. A., & Blaich, C. F. (2008, November). Validation of the NSSE benchmarks against liberal arts outcomes. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Pascarella, E. T., Seifert, T. A., & Blaich, C. (2010). How effective are the NSSE benchmarks in predicting important educational outcomes? Change: The Magazine of Higher Education, 42(1), 16–22. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/January-February%202010/full-how-effective.html

Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2011, November). Some new evidence on what matters in student learning. Presented at the Council of Independent Colleges 2011 Institute for Chief Academic Officers and Chief Advancement Officers, St. Petersburg Beach, FL. >>

Pascarella, E. T., Wang, J. S., Trolian, T. L., & Blaich, C. (2013). How the instructional and learning environments of liberal arts colleges enhance cognitive development. Higher Education, 66, 569–583. Available online with a subscription to SpringerLink.

Ribera, T., BrckaLorenz, A., Cole, E. R., Nelson Laird, T. F. (2012, April). Examining the importance of teaching clarity: Findings from the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Rude, J. D., Wolniak, G. C., & Pascarella, E. T. (2012, April). Racial attitude change during the college years. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Salisbury, M., Blaich, C., Loes, C. (2012, June). Increasing students' intrinsic motivation to learn: Evidence from a national study. Presentation at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, New Orleans, LA. >>

Salisbury, M., & Paulsen, M. (2012, November). Have passport, might travel: Applying an integrated model of student choice to identify the predictors of study abroad participation. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

Salisbury, M. H. (2009, May). Wrangling with retention. What does the Wabash National Study data suggest? Recording of presentation at the Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts Retention Workshop, Crawfordsville, IN. >>

Salisbury, M. H. (2010, March). Should I stay or should I go now: Identifying the factors that influence your students' decision to persist or withdraw. Slides presented at the Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts March 2010 Retention Workshop, Crawfordsville, IN. >>

Salisbury, M. H. (2011). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence among undergraduate college students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, 2011). Available at Iowa Research Online: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1073

Salisbury, M. H. (2011, May). Transformation or just a vacation: New evidence regarding the impact of study abroad on the educational outcomes of a liberal arts education. Paper presented at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Toronto, Ontario.

Salisbury, M. H., An, B. P., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence among undergraduate college students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50, 1–20. >>

Salisbury, M. H., & Goodman, K. M. (2009). Educational practices that foster intercultural competence. Diversity and Democracy, 12, 12–13. >>

Salisbury, M. H., Padgett, R. D., & Pascarella, E. T. (2009, June). The effects of work on the educational and liberal arts outcomes of first-year college students. Paper presented at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Atlanta, GA. 

Salisbury, M. H., Pascarella, E. T., Padgett, R. D., & Blaich, C. F. (2012). The effects of work on leadership development among first-year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 53, 300–324. Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>

Salisbury, M. H., Umbach, P. D., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2008, May). Going global: Understanding the choice process of the intent to study abroad. Paper presented at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Seattle, WA.

Salisbury, M. H., Umbach, P. D., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2009). Going global: Understanding the choice process of the intent to study abroad. Research in Higher Education, 50, 119–143.

Salisbury, M. H., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2009, November). To see the world or stay at home: The impact of gender on intent to study abroad. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Salisbury, M. H., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2010). To see the world or stay at home: Applying an integrated student choice model to explain gender gap in study abroad. Research In Higher Education, 51, 615–640. See journal website>>

Seifert, T. A. (2007, November). Does majoring in a "pure" versus "applied" field affect knowledge economy competency development? A multilevel, multi-institutional test of Biglan. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY. 

Seifert, T. A. (2009, May). Why don't they stay? Fostering student success and retaining students. Recording of presentation at the Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts Retention Workshop, Crawfordsville, IN. >>

Seifert, T. A., Gillig, B., Hanson, J. M., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. (2012, November). The conditional nature of high impact/good practices on student learning outcomes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

Seifert, T. A., Goodman, K. M., Edvalson, S., Laskowski, J., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. F. (2007, November). Why longitudinal research is critical in studying college impact: An example of between-college effects. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY. 

Seifert, T. A., Goodman, K. M., Jorgensen, J. D., Lindsay, N. K., Wolniak, G. C., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. F. (2006, November). The effects of liberal arts experiences on liberal arts outcomes. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Anaheim, CA.

Seifert, T. A., Goodman, K. M., Jorgensen, J. D., Lindsay, N. K., Wolniak, G. C., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. F. (2007, June). The effects of liberal arts experiences on liberal arts outcomes. Paper presented at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Kansas City, MO.

Seifert, T. A., Goodman, K. M., King, P. M., Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2010). Using mixed methods to study first-year college impact on liberal arts learning outcomes. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 4, 248–267. (available through SAGE journals online)

Seifert, T. A., Goodman, K. M., Lindsay, N. K., Jorgensen, J. D., Wolniak, G. C., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. F. (2008). The effects of liberal arts experiences on liberal arts outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 49, 107–125.

Seifert, T. A., King, P. A., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2009, April). Using mixed methods to study college impact. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Seifert, T. A., Pascarella, E. T., Erkel, S. I., & Goodman, K. M. (2010). The importance of longitudinal pretest-posttest designs in estimating college impact. In T. A. Seifert, (Ed.). New Directions in Institutional Research: Longitudinal Assessment for Institutional Improvement, 2010(s2), 67–78. (see publisher website)

Seifert, T. A., Pascarella, E. T., Goodman, K. M., Salisbury, M. H., & Blaich, C. F. (2008, November). Liberal arts colleges and good practices in undergraduate education: Additional evidence. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Seifert, T. A., Pascarella, E. T., Goodman, K. M., Salisbury, M. H., & Blaich, C. F. (2010). Liberal arts colleges and good practices in undergraduate education: Additional evidence. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 1–22. This article is available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>

Shim, W. (2009). Description of research methods and sample, years 1, 2, and 3: Interview portion, Wabash National Study. Report from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Shim, W. (2013, November). Understanding college students’ leadership engagement. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Shim, W. (2013). Different pathways to leadership development of college women and men. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50, 270–289.

Shim, W., & Walczak, K. K. (2008, November). The impact of faculty teaching practices on the development of students' critical thinking skills. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL.

Shim, W., & Walczak, K. K. (2012). The impact of faculty teaching practices on the development of students' critical thinking skills. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24, 16–30. See journal website>>

Trolian,T. & Barnhardt, C. L. (2013, November). The influence of college cocurricular involvement on students' attitudes about social and political involvement. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO. >>

Trolian, T., Pascarella, E. T., & An, B. P. (2013, November). Are there cognitive consequences of binge drinking during college? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO. >>

Trolian, T., & Synder, K. (2013, November). Work during college and student perceptions about professional duccess. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO. >>

Trolian, T. L., Pascarella, E. T., Martin, G. L., Hanson, J., Gillig, B., & Blaich, C. (2012, November). Effects of diversity experiences on critical thinking skills over four years of college. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

Trosset, C. (2009, May). Using Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Edcuation data to understand retention at Hampshire College. Video recording and slides of presentaion at the Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts Retention Workshop, Crawfordsville, IN. >>

Trosset, C., & Weisler, S. (2010). Using longitudinal assessment data to improve retention and student experiences. In T. A. Seifert, (Ed.). New Directions in Institutional Research: Longitudinal Assessment for Institutional Improvement, 2010(s2), 67–78. (see publisher website)

Umbach, P. D., Padgett, R. D., & Pascarella, E. T. (2010). The impact of working on undergraduate students’ interactions with faculty. In L. W. Perna (Ed.), Understanding the working college student: New research and its implications for policy and practices (pp. 234–257). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC. 

VanderStoep, S., Wise, K. S., & Blaich, C. (2010). Student engagement in liberal arts colleges: Academic rigor, quality teaching, diversity, and institutional change. In H. E. Fitzgerald, C. Burack, & S. D. Seifer (Eds.), Handbook of engaged scholarship: Vol. I. Institutional change: Contemporary landscapes, future directions. (pp. 131–147). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. See publisher website.

VanHecke, J. R., & King, P. M. (2006, November). Responsible citizenship: A study of predictive experiences and values among college students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Anaheim, CA.

Weeden, D., Sheets, J. E., Pascarella, E. T., Hendrickson, J., Hosp, J., Therrien, W. (2013, November). Welcoming diverse students to campus: How do students with cognitive disabilities compare to typical undergraduates on student engagement? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, St. Louis, MO.

Weeden, D. D., Hevel, M. S., Pasquesi, K. L. (2012, November). The conservative corner of the liberal academy? New evidence of the effect of fraternity and sorority membership on political orientation and social/political activism. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Learning, Las Vegas, NV.

Wolniak, G. C., Mayhew, M. J., & Engberg, M. E. (2009, November). Learning's WEAK link to persistence. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Wolniak, G. C., Mayhew, M. J., Engberg, M. E. (2012, November/December). Learning's weak link to persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 83, 795–823. (Available through a subscription to Project MUSE >>).